The Process and Importance of Mechanical Recycling in PET Management

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According to market research firm Markets and Markets, the global recycled polyester bottle (PET) market size is expected to grow from US$11 billion in 2023 to US$15 billion in 2028, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.5%. The main reason for this growth is rising global demand for sustainable packaging. The research firm also noted that bottles and containers are the largest and fastest-growing application segment in the recycled PET market during the forecast period. Among all regions in the world, Asia-Pacific is one of the largest and fastest-growing markets for recycled PET and is expected to account for the largest market share in the global recycled PET market.

Understanding Mechanical Recycling

Mechanical recycling is a multi-step process that transforms post-consumer PET into reusable materials through physical rather than chemical means. This method involves sorting, cleaning, processing, melting, extrusion, and cutting of PET pellets. Unlike chemical recycling, which breaks down plastics into their chemical components, mechanical recycling retains the original polymer structure of PET, making it a more straightforward and less energy-intensive method.

PET Bottle

The Sorting Phase

The initial phase of mechanical recycling is sorting, a critical step where PET plastics are separated from other materials. This automated process uses advanced technologies such as near-infrared spectroscopy, which can distinguish PET from other types of plastics and contaminants. Effective sorting ensures that the subsequent recycling steps are efficient and that the quality of the recycled PET is high.

The Cleaning Phase

Once sorted, the PET bottles, usually compacted into bales, undergo a thorough cleaning process. This phase is divided into several steps to ensure the removal of contaminants and prepare the PET for further processing:

Bottle Brick Unpacking: The bales are fed into a bottle brick unpacking machine, which breaks them up for easier handling.

Drum Screening: The broken-up bottles pass through a drum screen that separates stones, sand, metals, and other impurities.

Label Separation: Equipment designed to remove labels scrapes off up to 96% of the labels attached to the bottles. This step is crucial as labels can interfere with the recycling process and degrade the quality of PET.

Manual Sorting and Flake Production

Following the initial cleaning, a manual sorting phase ensures any remaining non-PET materials are removed. The cleaned bottles are then crushed into smaller pieces called bottle flakes. This size reduction is vital as it increases the surface area for subsequent cleaning steps, enhancing the removal of any remaining contaminants.

Advanced Cleaning Techniques

The bottle flakes undergo a series of cleaning processes to ensure they are free from oil stains, adhesives, and other residues. This is typically achieved through a combination of hot water cleaning and chemical reagents like baking soda. High-speed friction washing ensures thorough cleaning, while continuous washing cycles help maintain the high quality of the flakes. Color sorting equipment is then used to separate flakes by color, ensuring consistency in the final product.

Melting and Pelletizing

The clean PET flakes are then melted and extruded into PET pellets. This step involves heating the flakes until they reach a molten state, after which they are extruded and cut into uniform pellets. These PET pellets are the raw material for producing new PET bottles and can also be used in food packaging, thanks to their high purity and quality.

Applications of Recycled PET

The PET pellets produced through mechanical recycling have a wide range of applications. Primarily, they are used to manufacture new PET bottles, creating a closed-loop system that significantly reduces the need for virgin PET. Additionally, PET finds applications in the production of various textiles, carpets, and automotive components such as seat belts. This versatility highlights the importance of mechanical recycling in not only reducing plastic waste but also in providing sustainable alternatives for numerous industries.

Benefits of Mechanical Recycling

Mechanical recycling of PET offers several environmental and economic benefits:

Energy Efficiency: Compared to chemical recycling, mechanical recycling requires less energy, making it a more sustainable option.

Reduction in Plastic Waste: By converting post-consumer PET into new products, mechanical recycling helps reduce the volume of plastic waste that ends up in landfills and oceans.

Resource Conservation: Recycling PET conserves natural resources by reducing the demand for virgin PET production, which relies on petroleum.

Economic Opportunities: The recycling industry creates jobs and stimulates economic growth through the development of new technologies and the production of recycled materials.

PET bottle recycling solutions

Challenges and Future Outlook

Despite its advantages, mechanical recycling faces challenges such as contamination of input materials and the degradation of PET quality over multiple recycling cycles. Innovations in sorting technologies and cleaning processes are continuously being developed to address these issues. The future of PET recycling lies in improving the efficiency and scalability of mechanical recycling while exploring complementary methods such as chemical recycling for materials that cannot be processed mechanically.


Mechanical recycling stands as a cornerstone in the efforts to manage PET waste and promote sustainability. Its comprehensive process, from sorting and cleaning to pelletizing, ensures that post-consumer PET is effectively transformed into high-quality recycled materials. As global demand for sustainable packaging solutions continues to rise, mechanical recycling will play an increasingly vital role in achieving a circular economy and reducing the environmental impact of plastic waste.


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